What Is Adult Development?
We all know that children develop as they grow from infants into young adults. It’s also true that adults can continue to develop in important ways through their later years.
Significantly, this development concerns the ways we see and understand the world, the cognitive capacities we can bring to bear, and the motivations that drive us.
For example, Bill Joiner (Leadership Agility; see reading list) has illustrated the shifting terrain of focus for leaders in successive developmental stages:
As we develop, our cognitive capacity is enhanced with the integration of richer skill-sets. We become more able to hold and deal with contradiction, ambiguity, discomfort, conflict, and uncertainty. We can engage effectively with more complex systemic challenges -- a critical ability in today’s interconnected and volatile world.
We build on important skills such as self-awareness, self-management, and perspective-taking. We become more capable of setting our own compass, rather than simply taking direction from our surrounding culture or subculture. Our reactive tendencies, often defensive, can gradually give way to a more creative responsiveness.
Adult development is a significant area of study for modern psychology. It is represented by theorist/practitioners such as Jane Loevinger, Robert Kegan, William Torbert, Suzanne Cook-Greuter, Jennifer Garvey Berger, Bob Anderson, Kurt Fischer, Bill Joiner, Jenny Wade, and Ken Wilber.
Ken Wilber, 1998, Integral Psychology
Robert Kegan, 1998, In Over Our Heads
David Rooke and William Torbert, 2005, “Seven Transformations of Leadership” https://hbr.org/2005/04/seven-transformations-of-leadership
Bill Joiner and Stephen Josephs, 2006, Leadership Agility
Robert Kegan and Lisa Lahey, 2009, Immunity to Change
Robert Anderson and William Adams, 2015, Mastering Leadership
Robert Kegan and Lisa Lahey, 2016, An Everyone Culture: Becoming a Deliberately Developmental Organization